Many languages show differential object marking, i

Many languages show differential object marking, i

Dialects as opposed to situation or adpositional marking where only the diligent and theme, yet not the recipient, is actually listed are unattested.

age. a separate situation marker or adposition into monotransitive diligent (and you may ditransitive motif) just with animate and you can/otherwise unique NPs (cf. Bossong 1985, 1998; Comrie 1989: ch. 6). When, as it is commonly the outcome, the differential target marker are same as the fresh receiver marker, i have a possible state. Why don’t we have a look at Foreign-language, which is well-known for their differential object marker good taking place to the animate customers (cf. 6a-b). An equivalent preposition including marks users (cf. 6c).

Up on body evaluation of these advice, it might appear one to both motif ‘book’ and the individual ‘Juan’ in (6c) act like the fresh monotransitive patient, to make sure that we may feel talking about a dual-target design. However, examination of a heightened directory of analysis signifies that with ditransitives new recipient is often noted that have a great, by themselves of their animacy, as the motif has got the exact same differential establishing once the monotransitive patient. Thus, Foreign-language and you can comparable languages try categorized right here given that indirect-object languages.

3. This new twice-object build

On the greater part out of circumstances, the 2 things one act the exact same and you can for instance the monotransitive patient reveal zero establishing anyway, we.age. neither case-ple (7) away from Dagbani (Gur, Niger-Congo; Ghana and you may Togo) is more normal than just analogy (2) above.

Brand new double-object variety of also incorporates languages where both person and the brand new motif is actually detailed on the verb, and are generally indexed by a comparable ple are Kinyarwanda (Bantu; Rwanda; More dry 1983).

In lot of twice-target languages, the person and also the motif will be well-known by word order, of course the order regarding recipient and you may motif is restricted, it is generally the receiver which comes basic (cf. Sedlak 1975, Primus 1998). Yet not, there are even lots of double-object languages in which not even phrase purchase distinguishes individual and you will motif, therefore, the role assignment should be inferred from the framework (age.g. Shipibo-Konibo (Panoan; Peru), Valenzuela 2002).

4. The newest second-object build

If you find yourself there are dialects one to, including Chamorro, inform you unique situation-establishing of ditransitive theme, in the most common additional-object dialects the fresh new theme’s unique decisions concerns verb indexing: On these dialects there’s no target circumstances-establishing, and simply the fresh monotransitive patient as well as the ditransitive receiver are listed to the verb. A regular analogy arises from Motuna (Eastern Bougainville; Papua The latest Guinea).

5. Blended languages

A words could have been classified since the combined when it shows a couple equally prevalent option constructions to your verb ‘give’, or if it’s a couple verbs definition ‘give’ hence occur in some other constructions. The previous instance is actually depicted because of the Mandarin (cf. 9a-b), in addition to of the English.

There’s you to after that type of conduct that would be regarded as since the blended: whenever a construction is classified each other of the instance-marking by verb indexing, while these do not wade together. Eg, for the Bawm (Jaw, Tibeto-Burman; Myanmar and Asia), brand new person is actually designated by the dil mil postposition sinah, researching towards the unmarked theme, that is listed toward verb by the an item clitic and that and additionally indexes the monotransitive diligent (nan= when you look at the (10a-b)).

This has been decided quite randomly never to categorize like languages as the mixed, but to help you classify him or her with regards to the choices of their instance or adpositional marking. Ergo, Bawm is actually categorized since the a secondary-target words with regards to which map.

six. Geographic distribution

The two clear geographic generalizations will be the challenging predominance of indirect-object pattern for the Eurasia (apart from mainland Southeast Asia), while the lack of this trend off The united states. Mesoamerica and you may surrounding areas within the South usa are ruled from the indirect-target dialects, however, in other places new models be a little more mixed. In the Africa, there seems to be particular positioning with language families: Afroasiatic and you will Mande languages often reveal the fresh indirect-target structure, when you are Niger-Congo dialects other than Mande have a tendency to reveal twice-object and you may supplementary-object constructions.

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